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Minggu, 20 Januari 2008

Reading Text : Summary of Genres

Texts are divided into 13 types : Spoof, Narrative, Recount, Procedure, Descriptive, Report, News Item, Analytical Exposition, Hortatory Exposition, Explanation, Discussion, Review and Anecdote. These are know as GENRES.

SPOOF

Purpose : To tell an event with a humorous twist and to amuse/entertain the readers

Generic Structure :

  1. Orientation
  2. Event(s)
  3. Twist

Language Features :

  1. Use of Past tense
  2. Use of Action Verb
  3. Use of adverb
  4. Chronologically arranged

NARRATIVE

Purpose : To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story

Generic Structure :

  1. Orientation
  2. Evaluation
  3. Complication
  4. Resolution
  5. Reorientation

Language Features :

  1. Use of past tense
  2. Use of Action verb
  3. Use of adverb
  4. Chronologically arranged

RECOUNT

Purpose : to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event

Generic Structure :

  1. Orientation
  2. Event(s)
  3. Reorientation

Language Features :

  1. Use of Past Tense
  2. Use of action verb
  3. use of adverb
  4. use of adjectives

PROCEDURE

Purpose : to help readers how to do or make something

Generic Structure :

  1. Goal/Aim
  2. Materials/Equipments
  3. Steps/Methods

Language Features :

  1. Use of Simple Present Tense
  2. Use of Imperatives (V1)
  3. Use of adverb
  4. use of technical terms

DESCRIPTIVE

Purpose : to describe a particular person, place or thing.

Generic structure :

  1. Identification
  2. Description

Language Features :

  1. Use of Simple Present tense
  2. Use of action verb
  3. use of adverb
  4. use of special technical terms
  5. no temporal sequences

NEWS ITEM

Purpose : to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

Generic Structure :

  1. Newsworthy event(s)
  2. Background event(s)
  3. Sources

Language Features :

  1. Short,telegraphic information about story captured in headline
  2. use of action verbs
  3. use of saying verbs
  4. use of adverbs : time, manner and place.

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Purpose : To persuade the readers that something is the case and to analyze or explain

Generic Structure :

  1. Thesis
  2. Arguments
  3. Reiteration/Conclusion

Language Features :

  1. Use of modals
  2. use of action verbs and thinking verbs
  3. use of adverbs
  4. use of adjective
  5. use of technical terms
  6. use of general and abstract noun
  7. use of connectives/transition

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Purpose : to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case

Generic Structure :

  1. Thesis
  2. Arguments
  3. Recommendation

Language features :

  1. Use of Simple Present Tense
  2. Use of modals
  3. use of action verbs and thinking verbs
  4. use of adverbs
  5. use of adjective
  6. use of technical terms
  7. use of general and abstract noun
  8. use of connectives/transition

EXPLANATION

Purpose : To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.

Generic Structure :

  1. General statement
  2. A Sequenced Explanation
  3. Closing

Language Features :

  1. Use of Simple Present tense
  2. Use of action verbs, passive voice, noun phrase, adverbial phrase
  3. Use of technical terms
  4. Use of general and abstract noun
  5. use of conjunction of time and cause-effect.

DISCUSSION

Purpose : to present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)

Generic Structure :

  1. Issue
  2. Arguments=Evidence/Elaboration
  3. Conclusion

Language Features :

    1. Use of simple present tense
    2. Use of relating verb/to be and thinking verbs
    3. Use of general and abstract noun
    4. Use of conjunction/transition
    5. Use of modality
    6. Use of adverbial manner

REVIEW

Purpose : to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience

Generic Structure :

  1. Orientation
  2. Evaluation
  3. Interpretative Recount
  4. Evaluation
  5. Evaluative Summation

Language features :

  1. Focus on specific participants
  2. use of adjectives
  3. use of long and complex causes
  4. use of metaphor

ANECDOTE

Purpose : to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident

Generic structure :

  1. Abstract
  2. Orientation
  3. Crisis
  4. Reaction
  5. Coda.

Language Features :

  1. Use of exclamations, rhetorical question and intensifiers to point up the significance of the event
  2. use of material processes and temporal conjunctions.

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